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A general description is here.
The default method for generating from a discrete uniform distribution (used in ‘sample()’, for instance) has been changed. This addresses the fact, pointed out by Ottoboni and Stark, that the previous method made ‘sample()’ noticeably non-uniform on large populations. See PR#17494 for a discussion. The previous method can be requested using ‘RNGkind()’ or ‘RNGversion()’ if necessary for reproduction of old results. Thanks to Duncan Murdoch for contributing the patch and Gabe Becker for further assistance.